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A Review of Fuel Cell to Distribution Network Interface Using D-FACTS: Technical Challenges and Interconnection Trends

Mohamed Mohamed Khaleel 1,2, Mohd Rafi Adzman 1, Samila Mat Zali 1, Mustafa Mohamed Graisa 2, and Abdussalam Ali Ahmed 3
1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering Technology, University Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Malaysia
2. Aeronautical Engineering Department, College of Civil Aviation-Misrata, Misrata, Libya
3. Bani Waleed University, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Bani Waleed Libya

Abstract—Today, the worldwide public interest in reducing power quality issues and greenhouse gas emissions is a key driver to study fuel cells (FCs) connected to distribution network systems (DNs) based on distributed flexible alternating-current transmission systems (D-FACTS). DNs will need to develop a better performance on Power Quality (PQ) while providing a more efficient energy technology. This study reviewed in-depth the interface of DN to FC systems. By focusing on the FC interface and the associated technical challenges, this review may help reduce the risk of DNs, minimizing the consumption of fossil fuels for power generation, lowering the emission of hazardous gases while dramatically increasing electrical power loads, improving PQ and stability. Besides, the study deliberated aspects of FC power technology with DNs interfacing based on D-FACTS. Specifically, the discussion encompassed the configuration structures of FC power technology and DNs connection based on D-FACTS, technical challenges of DNs, and its trends to determine the diagnosis, integration, and optimization for FC power technology. 
Index Terms—Fuel cell, distribution network integrated, D-FACTS, configuration structures, technical challenge, interconnection trends

Cite: Mohamed Mohamed Khaleel, Mohd Rafi Adzman, Samila Mat Zali, Mustafa Mohamed Graisa, and Abdussalam Ali Ahmed, "A Review of Fuel Cell to Distribution Network Interface Using D-FACTS: Technical Challenges and Interconnection Trends," International Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering & Telecommunications, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 319-332, September 2021. Doi: 10.18178/ijeetc.10.5.319-332

Copyright © 2021 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.